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罪犯22级剖析

2005年2月,哥伦比亚大学的鉴识精神病学教授麦可史东博士,在研究纽约一家精神病院逾五百名谋杀犯的资料后,创造出一套共有22级、评量罪大恶极者的「邪恶量表」,以帮助法庭根据冷血罪犯行凶时的动机、行为及态度,决定谋杀犯应该被处决或终身监禁的刑罚,目前以被美国法庭所采纳。

01 为了自卫杀人,但是并没有心理病态倾向的人。
  Those who have killed in self-defence and who do not show psychopathic tendency.
02 虽然自我中心或不成熟,但并没有心理病态的善妒情人。
  Jealous lovers who, though egocentric or immature, were not psychopathic.
03 拥有异常人格的杀人同伙,可能具有反社会的冲动特质。
  Willing companions of killers; aberrant personality-probably impulse-ridden with antisocial traits.
04 自卫杀人,但先前对受害者一直非常挑衅。
  Killer in self-defence, but had been extremely provocative towards the victim.
05 受创的绝望者杀害施虐的近亲或其他人(例如:为了满足毒瘾),不过他们缺乏明显的心理病态特质,而且事后会悔恨不已。
  Traumatised, desperate people who kill abusing relatives, and others (eg:to support a drug habit) but lack significant psychopathic features.
06 暴躁、冲动的杀人犯,但不具明显的心理病态特征。
  Impetuous, hot-headed murderers, yet without marked psychopathic features.
07 极度自恋但并未展现明显心理病态的人,内在有精神倾向,杀害亲近的人(嫉妒是导致他们杀人的一大动机)。
  Highly narcissistic but not distinctly psychopathic people, with a psychotic core, who kill those close to them(jealousy an underlying motive).
08 没有心理病态,但心中蕴藏怒火的人在被激怒时杀人。
  Non-psychopathic people with smouldering rage who kill when rage is ignited.
09 具备心理病态特征的善妒情人。
  Jealous lovers with psychopathic features.
10 杀害碍事者或目击者的人(自我中心但没有明显的心理病态)。
  Killers of people who were “in the way” or who killed, for example, witnesses (egocentric but not distinctly psychopathic).
11 杀害碍事者的病态杀人犯。
  Psychopathic killers of people in the way.
12 渴望权力的心理病态者在陷入绝境时杀人。
  Power-hungry psychopaths who killed when the were “cornered”.
13 拥有愤怒、不当性格的杀人犯,突然一时失控杀人。
  Killers with inadequate, rageful personalities, who “snapped”.
14 高度自我中心的病态阴谋家。
  Ruthlessly self-centred psychopathic schemers.
15 病态“冷血”的纵欲杀人狂或连续杀人犯。
  Psychopathic “cold blooded” spree or multiple murders.
16 犯下多起恶意攻击行动的心理病态者。
  Psychopaths committing multiple vicious acts.
17 性变态连续杀人犯(男性杀人犯又以强暴为主要杀人动机,借此隐藏证据;有计画的施虐并非主要原因)。
  Sexually perverse serial murderers (among the males, rape usually a primary motive, with killing done to hide evidence; systematic torture not a primary factor).
18 以杀人为主要动机的虐杀者。
  Torture-murderers with murder the primary motive.
19 诉诸恐怖行动、压制行为、恐吓或强暴(但没有杀人)的心理病态者。
  Psychopaths driven to terrorism, subjugation, intimidation and rape (short of murder).
20 以施虐为主要动机的虐杀者,但拥有精神病态性格。
  Torture-murderers, with torture as the primary motive, but in psychotic personalities.
21 喜欢严刑折磨受害者的心理病态者,但过去没有杀人的纪录。
  Psychopaths preoccupied with torture in the extreme, but not known to have committed murder.
22 以施虐为主要动机的病态虐杀者。
  Psychopathic torture-murderers,  with torture their primary motive.

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